Greenhouse cultivation represents a type of “protected crop” which, if practiced correctly, has a series of benefits both for production and for environmental protection.
The first natural benefit of choosing to grow in greenhouses is represented by the lower risks deriving from adverse climatic conditions and harmful insects. The result is a more precise and less discretionary planning of production, with higher production yields, as well as higher and more constant quality standards.
From an environmental point of view, greenhouse cultivation is sustainable because it involves a more efficient and rationalized use of resources and a minimization of the use of pesticides. Among the most important aspects, there is water saving: in the greenhouse there is less potential evapotranspiration, due to its microclimate, characterized by higher air humidity, lower solar radiation and almost total absence of wind; yields are faster and modern and efficient irrigation systems can be applied.
Greenhouse cultivation for vegetables is particularly suitable for some varieties, such as tomatoes for example. In fact, the latter are demanding from a thermal point of view: the minimum germination temperature is around 12-13°C, while at least 22-25°C are needed to bear fruit. And again, tomatoes need a lot of water and regular and structured irrigation, which is optimized with greenhouse cultivation.
Ultimately, greenhouse cultivation, also in the light of increasingly technological systems, is an opportunity to raise quality, environmental and commercial standards.